INDEX.

The references are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. The following abbreviations are used: ace. = accusative; adj. = adjective; adv. = adverb; expr. = expressed; ftn. = footnote; inf. = infinitive; intrans. = intransitive; prep. = preposition; trans. = transitive. For Esperanto words whose use or meaning is specially explained, references are given in the Vocabulary.

A.
Abbreviations, 286; of ordinals, p. 107, ftn. Abstract nouns, 202. Accent, 8; of elided word, 280, b. Accompaniment, 70; distinguished from instrumentality and opposition, p. 49, ftn. Accordance, expr. by laŭ, 191. Active voice, participles of, 108, 119, 152; tenses of, see Tenses; synopsis of, 267. Accusative, ending, 23; of adj., 24; of pronoun, 37; of adv., 69, 121; of direction, 46, 108; of measure, 139; of time, 91; distinguished from temporal adv., 94; with temporal adv., 93; when avoided, 92; after adv., 266; with intrans. verb, 264; with nouns expressing motion, 263; in composition, p. 132, ftn.; instead of prepositional phrase, 265, 266; not used after prep., 36, (al, ĝis, tra) 46, (preter) p. 139, ftn.; not used with article, 25; not used with predicates, 25, 210; "cognate," see acc. with intrans. verbs, 264, a. Adjectives, defined, 12; ending of, 12; formation of, 116, (from adv.) 171, (from prep.) 159; attributive, 13; acc. of, 24; plural of, 17; agreement, (with nouns) 17, 21, 24, (with pronouns) 33, (with words connected by nek) 31; comparison of, 74; possessive, 43, (pronominal use of) 45; predicate, 19, (after trans, verbs) 210; use of, distinguished from adv. with da, 103; demonstrative, 65; distributive, 177; indefinite, 208; interrogative, 112; negative, 224; reflexive possessive, 44; relative, 150; causative verbs from roots of, 214, a; intrans. verbs from roots of, 232, c; cardinal, 136; ordinal, 149. Adverbs, defined, 66; primary, 66; derived, 79; (from prep.) 120; demonstrative, (tie) 68, (tiam) 73, (tial) 78, (tiel) 88, (tiom) 104; interrogative, (kie) 118, (kiam) 123, (kial) 129, (kiel) 134, (kiom) 140, (ĉu) 30, p. 38, ftn.; relative, (kie) 151, (kiam) 155, (kiel) 156, p. 170, ftn., (kiom) 164; distributive, (ĉie) 182, (ĉiam) iS7, (ĉial) 188, (ĉiel) 193, (ĉiom) 194; indefinite, (ie) 209, (iam) 212, (ial) 213, (iel) 216, (iom) 217; negative, (nenie) 225, (neniam) 226, (nenial) 229, (neniel) 230, (neniom) 231, (ne) 27, 66, a; generalizing, (ajn) 236; numeral, 158; position of, 66, a; expressing direction of motion, 69, 121; with expressions of time, 93; distinguishing from acc. of time, 94; with acc., 266; with prep., 87; calling attention, (jen) 228; causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d; as interjections, p. 216, ftn.; derivation of words from primary, 171. Adverbial clauses, p. 168, ftn.; participle, 222, (translating "without") p. 193, ftn. Adversative conjunctions, p. 32, ftn. Advice, expression of, 257, 259. Affectionate diminutives, 283 (also 198, and ftn., p. 221). Affirmation, 66. Affixes, see Prefixes, Suffixes. Agency, expr. by de, 169. Agreement, of attributive adj., 17, (with acc.) 24; of predicate noun and adj., 21; of adj. with two or more nouns, 17; of adj. with words connected by nek, 31; of adj. with pronouns, 33; of participle, 108; of nouns in apposition, 48. Alphabet, I. Anticipation, expr. by clause, 97; by inf. with prep., 98. Aoristic tenses, explained, p. 78, ftn.; conjugation of, (present) 14, (past) 35, (future) 55, (conditional) 241, (imperative), 254. Apposition, 48. Argumentative conjunction, p. 32, ftn. Article, definite, 11; invariable, 18, 25; for possessive adj., 47; with possessive adj., 45; generic, 201, 218, b, elision of, 280, a; no indefinite, II. Assumption, defined, 240; implied, 244. Augmentatives, 122. Auxiliary verbs, 109.
C.
Cardinal numerals, 136; formation of, 142. Case, see Accusative, Dative, Nominative, Possessive. Causative verbs, 214. Cause, expr. by clause, 83; by pro, 86; by ke, p. 222, ftn. Characteristic, expr. by kun, 76; by adverbial participle, 222. Clauses, defined, p. 34, ftn.; adverbial, p. 168, ftn.; causal, 83; of anticipation, 97; of duration of time, 96; of imaginative comparison, 250; of purpose, 262; of result, 105; subordinate imperative, 259. "Cognate acc.," see acc. with intrans. verbs, 264. Collective nouns, 126. Collective sense given by use of da, 103. Commands, expression of, 256; in subordinate clause, 259. Complement of prep., 36. Complementary inf., 29. Comparison, of adj., 74; of adv., 79; of words expressing quantity, 81; containing ol, 82; ju and des in, 84. Composition, see Compounds. Compound tenses, explained, 109; of impersonal verbs, 179; conjugation of, see Tenses. Compounds, dependent, 176; descriptive, 167; possessive, 184. Conclusion (of conditions) defined, 240; (of letters), see Correspondence. Concrete nouns, formation of, 227. Conditional mood, 241; compound tenses of, 242; in contrary to fact conditions, 246; in less vivid conditions, 243; independent use of, 244; of devi, 247; conditional sentences, see Conditions. Conditions, defined, 240; contrary to fact, 246; factual, 240; less vivid, 243; vivid, p. 189, ftn.; summary of, 249. Conjugation, 34; synopsis of, 267; of tenses, see Tenses. Conjunctions, defined, 52; coordinating, 52; subordinating, 53, (not omitted) p. 34, ftn.; , p. 32, ftn.; kaj, 26, p. 32, ftn.; ke, (in indirect statements), 53, (in causal clauses) 83, p. 222, ftn.; (in result clause) 105, (in purpose clause) 262, (in subordinate imperative clause) 259; kvazaŭ, 250; nek, 31, p. 32, ftn.; se, 240; sed, p. 32, ftn.; tamen, p. 32, ftn.; do, p. 32, ftn.; see p. 110, ftn. Connection, expr. by de, 49; indefinite, expr. by je, 260. Consent, expression of, 257, (in subordinate clauses) 259. Consonants, combinations of, 6; pronunciation of, 3, names of, 4. Contrary to fact conditions, 246. Coordinating conjunctions, 52. Copulative conjunctions, p. 32, ftn. Correlative words, 235. Correspondence, 278.
D.
Dates, expr. by acc., 91; expr. by antaŭ, 90; expr. by prep., 89; on letters, see Correspondence, 278. "Dative," ethical, of reference, of separation, p. 197, ftn. Definite quantity, nouns of, followed by de, 100. Degree, advs. of, 66, (tiel) 88, (kiel) 134, 156; highest possible, 162; see also Comparison. Deliberation, expression of, 257, (in subordinative clause) 259. Demonstrative, pronoun, (tiu) 56, (ĉi tiu) 60, (tio, ĉi tio) 233; adjective, 65; adv., see Adverbs. Dependent compounds, 176. Derivation, of adv., 79, (from prep.) 120; of words from prep., 159; of words from primary adv., 171. Descriptive compounds, 167. Diminutives, 198; affectionate, 283. Diphthongs, 5. Direct object, defined, 23; inf. as, see Complementary inf., 29; clause as, 53, 259; of complementary inf., 29; of participle, 108; of prep., see Complement, 36. Direction, expr. by acc. (of noun) 46, 263, (of adv.) 121. Disjunctive conjunctions, p. 32, ftn. Distributive, prep., see po, 175; pronoun, (ĉiu) 173, (ĉio) 233; adj., 177; adv., see Adverbs. Double letters, 6, e.
E.
Elision, 280. Emphasis, by , 66; by ja, 215. Emphatic negation, 27. Ending, of acc., 23; of adj., 12; of adv., 79; of noun, 10; of plural, 16; of inf., 28; of indicative, 14, 35, 55; of conditional, 241, of imperative, 254; of participle, see Participles. "Ethical dative," p. 197, ftn. Exclamations, 115; use of je in, 260. Exhortation, 255. Expedience, expressions of, 259.
F.
Factual conditions, 240. Feminine nouns, formation of, 59. Formation, of words, 116; of opposites, 67, of feminines, 59; with -ig- and -iĝ-, 239; from primary words, 159, 171. Fractions, 166. Frequentative verbs, 218, a. Future participle, (active) 152, (passive) 199. Future tense, 55, (progressive) 114, (passive) 183, periphrastic, 153, 200. Future perfect tense, 148, (passive) 196.
G.
Generic article, 201. 218, b. Generalizing adv. ajn, 236.
H.
Highest degree possible, 162.
I.
Imaginative comparison, 250. Imperative mood, 254; in commands and prohibitions, 256; in resolve and exhortation, 255, in subordinate clauses, 259;. less peremptory uses of, 257; to express purpose, 262. Imperfect tense, 113, (passive) 178. Impersonal verbs, 50, compound tenses of, 179; modifiers of, 141. Impersonally used verbs, explained, 141; modifiers of, 141. Inchoative verbs, 232, a. Indefinite connection, expr. by je, 260. Indefinite, pronoun, (iu) 203, (io) 233; (personal) 54; adj., 208; advs., see Adverbs; prep., 260; suffix, 268; quantity, expressions of, with da, 99, 101. Independent use of conditional mood, 244. Indicative mood, defined, 241; tenses of, see Synopsis, 267. "Indirect object," see al. Indirect quotation, tenses in, 58; statements in, 53; questions in, p. 38, ftn.; p. 170, ftn. Infinitive, defined, 28, 241; ending of, 28; complementary, 29; as subject, 29; modifiers of, 130; synopsis of, 267; with prep., 98; replaced by noun, 218, b. Instruction, (orders), requests for, 257, 259. Instrumentality, expr. by per, 64; distinguished from accompaniment, p. 49, ftn. Instruments, formation of names of, 63. Intensive pronoun, mem, 219. Intention, expr. by clause, 259. Interjections, 273. International money system, 285; weights and measures, 284. Interrogation, 30, 66, a. Interrogative, pronoun, (kiu) 106, (kio) 233; adj., 112; advs., see Adverbs. Intransitive verbs, defined, 22; no passive, p. 122, ftn.; from adj. roots, 232, c; from noun roots, advs., preps., suffixes, prefixes, 232, d; from trans, verb roots, 232, b, (table of), 279. Introductory particle, not needed, 50, 51. Invariability, of article, 18; of mem, 219; of verb, 18; of cardinals, 136. Inversion, not needed in questions, 30.
L.
Less peremptory uses of imperative, 257. Less vivid conditions, 243. Letters, names of, 4; double, pronunciation of, 6, e; see also Correspondence, 278. Limitation of third personal pronoun, 42.
M.
Manner, expr. by kun, 76; expr. by. per, p. 53, ftn.; by adverbial participle, 222; advs. of, see Adverbs. Material, expression of, 197. Means, expression of, 64. Measure, ace. of, 139; expr. by je, 260. Measures, weights and, 284. Metric system, 284. Modifiers of impersonally used verbs, 141. Money system, The international, 285. Mood, defined, 241; inf., see Infinitive; conditional, 241; imperative, 254; indicative, see 267; in conditions, see Conditions. Moral obligation, 247. Motive or reason, advs. of, see Adverbs; expr. by clause, 83; expr. by prep., 86.
N.
Names, of letters, 4; orthography of proper, 128. Necessity, expression of, 259. Negative, pronoun, (neniu) 220; (nenio) 233; adj., 224; advs., see Adverbs; conjunction, 31. "Nominative absolute," how rendered, p. 169, ftn. Nominative case, ending of, (for nouns) 10, (for adj.) 12; of predicate noun and adj., 25, 210; with prep., 36, (al, ĝis, tra) 46. Noun, defined, 10, ending of, 10, plural of, 16; acc. of, 23; elision of, 280, b; feminine, 59; numeral, 157; participial, 205; predicate, 20, 211; possessive case of, 49; expressing motion, followed by acc., 263; expressing quantity, followed by da, 99, by de, 100; replacing inf., 218, b; replacing participial phrase, p. 193, ftn.; from adv., 171; from prep., 159. Noun roots, causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d. Number, see Plural. Numeral nouns, 157; advs., 158. Numerals, cardinal, 136; formation of, 142; fractional, 166; ordinal, 149; abbreviation of, p. 107, ftn.; followed by el, 138.
O.
Object, see Direct object, Indirect object, Complement. Obligation, 247, (moral) 247. Opposites, formation of, 67; of pli and plej, 80. Opposition, distinguished from accompaniment, p. 49, ftn. Order, of word endings, p. 10, ftn.; see also Position. Ordinal numerals, 149; advs., 158; abbreviation of, p. 107, ftn. Orthography, of proper nouns, 128.
P.
Part of the whole, expression of, (after noun) 99, (after adv.) 101. Participial nouns, 205; advs., 222. Participle, defined, 108; agreement of, 108; adverbial, 222, (translating "without") p. 193, ftn.; present, 108, (passive) 165; past, 119, (passive) 189; future, 152, (passive) 199. Particle, introductory, not needed, 50, 51. Partitive construction, p. 74, ftn. Passive voice, agent of, 169; participles of, see Participles; tenses of, see Tenses; of -ig- formations, 239; distinguished from -iĝ- formations, 232, b. Past tense, 35, (passive) see Imperfect; past participle, see Participles. Past periphrastic future, 153, (passive) 200. Past inception, present action with, 131. Peremptory commands and prohibitions, 256, 259. Perfect tense, 124, (passive) 190; perfect participle, see Past participle. Periphrastic futures, 153, (passive) 200. Permission, expression of, 269. Perplexity, expression of, 257, 259. Personal pronouns, 32; acc. of, 37; indefinite, 54; reflexive, 39, 40; limitation of third personal, 42; position of unemphatic, 274. Place, expr. by ĉe, 125; advs. of, see Adverbs; expr. by -ej-, III; 128. Pluperfect tense, 135, (passive), 195. Plural, of nouns, 16; of pronouns, 56, 106, 203, 173, 220; of adj., 16; of unu, 137; none of article, 18; none of pronouns ending in -o, 233. Position, of attributive adj., 13; of adv., 66, a; of emphatic negative, 27; of unemphatic pronoun, 274; of interrogative adv., 30. Possession, expr. by de, 49. Possessive, adjective, 43; reflexive, 44; article for, 47; ftn., p. 221. Possessive case of nouns, 49; of pronouns, (ties) 62, (kies) 107, 147, (ĉies) 174, (ies) 204, (nenies) 221; see also Possessive adjective, 43. Possessive compounds, 184. "Possessive pronouns," p. 24, ftn. Possibility, expression of, 270. Predicate, adj., 19, agreement of, 21; after trans, verbs, 210; noun, 20; agreement of, 21; after trans. verb, 211; clause as, 259. Prefixes, causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d; prep. as, 160, 248; adverb as, 71, 167, a, interjection as, p. 216, ftn.; bo-, 277; dis-, 245; duon-, 277; ek-, 206; eks-, 281; ge-, 271; mal-, 67; pra-, 282; re-, 223. Prepositions, defined, 36; with inf., 98; with adv., 87; with other preps., 87; case use with, 36, 46; expressing time relations, 89; as prefixes, 160; word derivation from, 159; advs. from, 120; causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d; making intrans. verbs trans., 264, b, c; see also references in Vocabulary. Prepositional phrase, acc. instead of, 265, 266. Present action with past inception, 131. Present periphrastic future, 153, (passive) 200. Present participle, 108, (passive) 165. Present tense, 14, (progressive) 110, (passive) 168. Primary adverbs, defined, 66; derivation of words from, 171. Probability, expression of, 270. Progressive tenses, present, 110, future, 114; passive, 200. Prohibition, expression of, 256, 259. Pronominal adjective, possessive adj. as, 45; pronoun as, (tiu) 57, 60, (kiu) 106, 146, (ĉiu) 173, (iu) 203, (neniu) 220, (ambaŭ) 238. Pronouns, defined, 32; agreement with, 33; personal, 32; indefinite personal, 54; reflexive, 38, 39, 40, (in composition) p. 132, ftn.; possessive, p. 24, ftn.; possessive form of, see Possessive case; limitation of third personal, 42; position of unemphatic, 274; correlation of predicative or relative, 234; followed by el, 173, p. 115, ftn.; series in -o, 233; demonstrative, 56, 60, 233; distributive, 173, 233; indefinite, 203, 233; interrogative, 106, 233; negative, 220, 233; relative, 146; 233; summary, 235; ambaŭ, 238; intensive, 219. Proper nouns, orthography of, 128. Protestations, use of je in, 260. Proximity, expr. by ĉi, 60, 66, p. 229, ftn. Purpose, expr. by inf., 98; by imperative, 262; by prep., 95.
Q.
Quantity, construction with nouns expressing, 99, 100; construction with advs. expressing, 101; advs. of, (tiom) 104, (kiom) 140, 164, (ĉiom) 194, (iom) 217, (neniom) 231; comparison of advs. expressing, 81. Questions, 30; indirect, p. 38, ftn., p. 170, ftn.; of deliberation, perplexity, or for instructions, 257, 259. Quotations, indirect, 53, 58.
R.
Reciprocal expressions, 180. Reference, expr. by al, 251. Reflexive pronouns, of first and second persons, 39; of third person, 40; with substantival inf., 130. Reflexive possessive adjective, 44. Reflexive verbs, 41; distinguished from verbs in -iĝ-, 232, b. Relative pronoun, (kiu) 146, (kio) 233; not omitted, p. 106, ftn. Relative adjective, 150; relative adverb, see Adverbs. Relative clause, see 146, 233, (temporal) 155, (of manner) 156, (quantitative) 164. Request, expression of, 257, 259; for instructions, 257, 259. Resolve, expression of, 255. Result, clauses of, 105. Root, defined, p. 42, ftn. Route, expression of, 191.
S.
Salutations, 115. Separation, expr. by de, 170; expr. by al, 252; by for, 71; by dis-, 245. Situation, expr. by ĉe, 125; by adverbial participle, 222. Source, expr. by de, 170. Statements, indirect, 53; tenses in, 58. Subject, defined, 15; preceded by verb, 51; inf. as, 130; clause as, 141, 259; of adverbial participle, 222. Subordinate clause, defined, 53; imperative in, 259, 262; conditional in, see Conditions, 243, 246. Subordinating conjunctions, ke, 53, 105, 259 (tial ke) 83, p. 222, ftn.; (por ke) 262; (not omitted) p. 34, ftn.; se, 240; kvazaŭ, 250; ĉu, p. 38, ftn. Substantive, defined, p. 71, ftn.; inf. as, 98, 130; clause as, 53, 259. Substitution, expr. by prep., p. 63, ftn.; expr. by prep. with inf., 98; of noun for inf., 218, b, p. 193, ftn. Suffixes, causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d; -ad-, 218; -aĉ-, 272; -aĵ-, 227; -an-, 145; -ar-, 126; -ĉj-, 283; -ebl-, 161; -ec-, 202; -eg-, 122; -ej-, 111; -em-, 192; -er-, 276; -estr-, 253; -et-, 198; -id- 207; -ig-, 214, 239, 275; -iĝ-, 232, 239, 279; -il-, 63; -in-, 59; -ind-, 154; -ing-, 237; -ist-, 172, p. 154, ftn.; -nj-, 283; -obl-, 186; -on-, 166; -op-, 261; -uj-, 181; -ul-, 132; -um-, 268. Summary of conditions, 249. Superlatives, (adj.) 74, (adv.) 79; followed by el, 75. Syllables, 7. Synonyms, apparent, (diri: paroli: rakonti) 77, (koni: scii) 117, (tempo; fojo) 127, (loĝi: vivi) 133, (antikva: maljuna: malnova) p. 128, ftn., 67, (ĉiu: tuta) p. 130, ftn., (indiferenta: nezorga) p. 162, ftn., (provi: peni: juĝi) p. 228, ftn., (ĝuste: juste: ĵus) p. 198, ftn., (ankoraŭ: jam) p. 124, ftn., p. 112, ftn., (troviĝi: sin trovi: kuŝi: sidi) p. 217, ftn. Synopsis of the verb, 267. System, correlative, 235; metric, 284; of money, 285.
T.
Temporal clauses, 96, 155. Temporal adverbs, 66, (tiam) 73, (kiam) 123, 155, (ĉiam) 187, (iam) 212, (neniam) 226, (jam) p. 124, ftn. (ankoraŭ) p. 112, ftn., (ĵus) p. 116, ftn. Tenses, aoristic, p. 78, ftn.; compound, 109; (of impersonal verbs) 179; in indirect quotations, 58; in conditions, 249; of inf., 267; of conditional, 241, 242; of imperative, 254; present, 14, (progressive) 110, (passive) 168, past, 35, (passive) 178; future, 55, (progressive) 114; (passive) 183; imperfect, 113, (passive) 178; perfect, 124, (passive) 190; pluperfect, 135, (passive) 195; future perfect, 148, (passive) 190; periphrastic, 153, (passive) 200; synopsis of all, 267. Terminations, see Endings. Terms of address, 163; affectionate, 283, p. 221, ftn. Time, of day, 185; expr. by prep., 89; expr. by acc., 91; expr. by clause, 96, 155; expr. by adverbial participle, 222; advs. of, see Temporal adverbs. Titles, 163; use of moŝto, 258. Transitive verbs, defined, 22; formed by -ig-, 214; from intrans. roots, 264, b, c; list of some, 275.
U.
Unemphatic words, position of, (negative) 27, (pronoun) 274.
V.
Verbal nouns in -ad-, 218, b, p. 193, ftn. Verbal roots, causative verbs from, 214, b. Verbs, mood of, 241; invariable, 18; causative, 214; frequentative, 218, a; inchoative, 232, a; impersonal, 50; reflexive, 41; trans., defined, 22; trans, from intrans. roots, 275; intrans., defined, 22; intrans. from trans. roots, 232, b, 279; from prep., 159; from adv., 171; conjugation of, 34, (synopsis) 267, preceding the subject, 51; as interjection, p. 216, ftn.; implied, (in comparisons) 82, 156, 250; (in salutations) 115, (in exclamations) 115, 228; with prepositional phrase containing da, 102. Vivid conditions, p. 189, ftn. Vowels, pronunciation of, 2.
W.
Way, expression of, (manner) 76, (route) 191. Weights and measures, 284. Wish, expression of, 257, 259. Words, correlative, 235; formation of, 116; from prepositions, 159; from primary advs., 171; composition of, see Compounds; order of, in question, 30; see also Position.
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